Chemical rocket propulsion is not an efficient method of long-term space travel due to its requirements for large amounts of fuel for a small payload. Hall thruster systems are a subset of electric propulsion systems that may serve as an efficient alternative to chemical propulsion systems. Hall thrusters operate by bombarding neutral atoms with electrons to form ions and ejecting those ions at high velocities. They can operate for extended periods of time, allowing their rocket bodies to accelerate to speeds much higher than that of a chemical rocket. …

I highly recommend reading my article on space debris before reading this. It has key prerequisites that help build the context of this article.

Space Debris, by ESA

Humans are heavily reliant on satellites. About 3,000 operating satellites help warn you of natural disasters, monitor the climate, provide GPS, maintain the atomic clock, provide government intelligence, and help us study space, just to name a few.

Most of these satellites are in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), which is between 160 km and 1000 km above the Earth’s surface. However, space debris heavily litters this zone. In fact, there are over an estimated 100,000,000+ pieces…

Light sails rely only on photons to reach up to 20% of the speed of light. Maybe they can even help us reach another star system.

LightSail, from The Planetary Society

One of the most challenging issues space exploration faces is efficient propulsion and reaching far distances. For the most part, we rely on chemical propulsion systems to get out of Earth’s orbit and to our destination.

Chemical propulsion systems use liquid or solid fuel to push a rocket out of Earth’s orbit. Then the rocket sheds off parts of itself, which we call dead weight. This way, the rocket is lighter and can travel…

And the space technology up there might be destroyed from it.

When most people imagine space above the Earth, they probably imagine a pristine landscape with some satellites, rockets, and other space modules. What they don’t imagine is a danger zone full of space debris, ranging from the size of paint flecks to large satellites, whizzing around at bullet-like speeds with the capability to disable and destroy the space applications that almost everyone relies on.

What is the Kessler Syndrome?

Scientists have actually been aware of the dangers of space debris for decades. In 1978, astrophysicist and NASA scientist Donald J. Kessler proposed a hypothetical…

Skyhooks may be the first step to interplanetary travel.

Photograph by Suchart Kuathan

Humans have been stuck on Earth for about 7,000,000 years. It wasn’t until the last century that humans have finally felt the true touch of space, sending probes, rovers, and even humans off the Earth’s surface. We are still in our primitive space days, however. To really explore space, we need to cross one major barrier — becoming an interplanetary species. Of course, this is a far stretch, as we’re still yet to put humans on another terrestrial body other than the moon. …

Warning: This article includes mentions of misogyny, rape, sexual assault, and other content that may not be suitable for some viewers.

By now, most people are well aware of Donald Trump’s political and celebrity personality. After all, he’s the president of one of the most powerful countries in the world. The question is, will he be reelected in the upcoming election? According to the current political polls, over 40% of Americans are planning on voting for Trump. But do they really know who they’re voting for? In this five-part series, we’ll be discussing the biggest issues with Donald Trump. …

Chloe Wang

14-year-old Innovator | Space Enthusiast | Political and Social Enthusiast

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